SHC Reference2185/JB
DescriptionThe archival structure of the Broadwood business papers is complicated and the present arrangement of the records is a compromise. Since the running of the firm was intimately bound up with the family, records relating to it cannot always be clearly divided from 'domestic', 'estate' and 'personal' material. This is most notably the case with correspondence. Members of the family might be involved in the firm's affairs as partners, as employees, as trustees of family trusts or simply as concerned members of the family. In the 1890s, for example, when Bertha Broadwood engaged in extensive correspondence about the future of the firm, she did so not only because she was trustee of the family estate settlement, but also since she was herself ultimately dependent on the well-being of the firm for her income, and was concerned for the interests of her relatives employed in the firm - notably her nephew WC Dobbs.

The records listed below predominantly comprise those relating to the constitution of the firm and the conduct of its business. Most were presumably created and retained in the firm's offices and works. Some, such as the partnership deeds themselves, may well have been kept apart from the main business records by the partners or their solicitors, while other of the records are semi-personal in nature and were perhaps kept in family hands.

At some stage, many of the records were removed to Lyne, Capel, the Broadwood's Surrey home, although it is unclear precisely when. Indeed, the transfer might have been a gradual process. It is clear that, in 1903, when the firm left Great Pulteney Street, Lucy and Henry Broadwood sorted through the records and took away 'those of a private nature' having undertaken 'to allow representatives of the Board to have access to them' (Wainwright, p.265). The bulk of the business records were presumably moved to Lyne during the chairmanship of Capt Evelyn Broadwood, either during the war or one of the firm's periodic spasms of reorganisation.

The precise archival provenance of a third group of records, semi-personal in nature, is unclear. Such material includes reports sent to Henry Fowler Broadwood at Lyne; and the correspondence of the partners relating to the partnerships and the design of pianos and may never have formed part of the firm's own archive (2185/JB/6/-). It has been included here rather than among the personal papers of the family, since it is directly connected to the company's concerns.

The records include partnership deeds and papers; memoranda and articles of association; papers relating to shares and debentures; board and factory minute books; annual reports and accounts; partners' and directors' correspondence; patents, trademarks and warrants of appointment; property deeds; partnership financial accounts and papers; bought ledgers; foreign ledgers; cash books; sales ledgers, number books and porters books relating to the production, sale and distribution of pianos; sales department order books, commissions books, agreements and correspondence; hire books; music rolls sale and hire records; gramophone sales records; stock and sales analysis records; tuning department records; Old Ford Works and Brunel Road factory records; warehousing records; works photographs; staff records; catalogues and price lists; scrapbooks, illustrations, photographs, and advertising material; papers relating to antique instrument collection and historic pianos; papers relating to exhibitions and events; and collected portraits and papers relating to musicians and the music profession.
ProvenanceDeposited by the Broadwood Trust in 1977, 1984, 1993 and 2003. The trustees donated the archive outright to Surrey History Service in January 1993. The following items were kindly donated by the Trustees of The Colt Clavier Collection, Bethersden, Ashford, Kent, from among the collection of Mr and Mrs C F Colt, in December 2017: 2185/JB/29/1A/1, 2185/JB/29/3A/1, and 2185/JB/42/1a, 2a, 3c, 4a-c, 12a and 25a.
IntroductionCompany history

Burckhardt Tschudi was born in 1702 in Schwanden, in the canton of Glarus, Switzerland. He was the son of a wool merchant and councillor, descended from a well-established family. The family badge depicted a pine tree decorated with nine bloody cones in memory of the battle exploits of a 13th century ancestor, Rudolf Schudi. Burckhardt trained as a cabinet-maker and, since work at home was scarce, emigrated to London in 1718. Later he adopted 'Burkat Shudi' as the anglicised spelling of his name. He became apprenticed to Hermann Tabel, a Flemish harpsichord maker who had a workshop in Piccadilly until 1724 and in St James's thereafter. By 1728, Shudi was in business on his own account and living at 1 Meards Street, Soho (ref: 2185/JB/9/-). He married Catherine Wild, daughter of Jakob Wild, a merchant who had also emigrated to London from Schwanden.

Shudi became a close friend of the composer, George Frederick Handel, who was a regular visitor. In 1731, Handel gave a harpsichord made by Shudi to the Italian soprano and regular performer of his work, Anna Strada del Po. With such backing, Shudi's reputation as a harpsichord maker and tuner grew and in 1741, the family moved to larger premises in Great Pulteney Street, under the sign of the Prince of Wales' feathers, since Shudi was by then harpsichord maker to the prince. In 1744, he made a harpsichord for Frederick the Great of Prussia and, to mark its completion, commissioned a family portrait for the front parlour at Great Pulteney Street (painted by Marcus Tuscher and now held at the National Portrait Gallery, London).

In 1761, Shudi took as apprentice John Broadwood, a 29 year old joiner and cabinet-maker from Oldhamstocks in the Scottish Borders. In 1769, Broadwood married Shudi's daughter, Barbara, and became a partner in the business before taking it over completely in 1771, two years before Shudi's death. However the names 'Shudi & Broadwood' continued to appear on the firm's instruments until 1793.

Shudi had been primarily a harpsichord maker and was responsible for making several modifications in the performance and design of the instrument (for patents, see -/8/-). When Broadwood took over the company in the early 1770s, it encompassed four concerns: the making and sale of harpsichords, hire of same for concert or domestic use, a tuning business and the sale of a variety of other musical instruments such as guitars and 'clavierorgana'.

Although he continued to fulfil demand for harpsichords, Broadwood was also interested in the development of the new 'pianoforte' that had begun in Italy and Germany in the early 18th century. Henry Fowler Broadwood suggested that his grandfather began making pianofortes as early as 1770, though there is little substantial evidence.

Throughout the 1770s, Broadwood had continued to develop, make and sell harpsichords and pianofortes at a steady rate. He refined the design of the 'square' pianoforte throughout the succeeding decade with the assistance of Muzio Clementi (1752-1832), the Italian composer and instrument maker, and Jan Ladislav Dussek (1760-1816), the Bohemian-born pianist (patents, 1769-1929, ref: -/JB/8/-). According to notes made c.1880 by AJ Hipkins, a Broadwood employee and music historian, the first reference in the company records to the sale of a square pianoforte was made in Sep 1783 when a 'PF with brass dampers' was sent to Miss Gibbs of Cork for £21. Public demand for the newly fashionable pianoforte took off at about the same time and in 1784 alone, Broadwood sold 133 pianos, effectively multiplying the firm's annual output tenfold since he had taken it over (2185/LEB/7/19-23).

By the mid 1790s, the Broadwood 'grand' pianofortes were in as much demand as the squares and, in around 1793, John Broadwood stopped producing harpsichords altogether. Instead, he directed the firm's efforts into developing, making, hiring and tuning pianofortes and, in 1799, he introduced the 'upright grand' pianoforte. Broadwood gradually extended the business premises to fill three adjoining houses in Great Pulteney Street as well as the nine mews properties and the former Crown public house to the rear in Bridle Lane and Silver Street (now Beak Street), Soho. The showrooms fronted onto Great Pulteney Street while the works entrance was in Bridle Lane.

In 1795, John Broadwood went into partnership with his eldest son, James Shudi Broadwood, who had joined the business in 1785. The firm became known first as John Broadwood & Son, and in 1808, when John's younger son, Thomas, joined the partnership, as John Broadwood & Sons. It remained a partnership until 1901, when it was reconstituted as a limited company (ref: 2185/JB/4/- to -/6/-).

Until the 1840s all the partners were actively engaged in managing the firm. Thereafter, Henry Fowler Broadwood, son of James Shudi, who had been taken into partnership in 1836, took on the responsibility of being the active head of the firm, while his younger brother, Walter Stewart Broadwood, and cousin, Thomas Broadwood the younger, became sleeping partners. In 1879 Henry Fowler's younger son, Henry James Tschudi Broadwood, became a partner and in 1893 on Henry Fowler's death succeeded him as the head of the firm.

Throughout the period of the partnership, most of the shares remained in the hands of Broadwood family members, although in 1857, Frederick and George Thomas Rose were brought into the partnership, as was the piano maker, John Reid, although the latter only remained with the firm for four years. The Rose brothers had worked for the firm for many years, as had their father. George Rose supervised the administrative and accounts office in Great Pulteney Street, while Frederick was responsible for the factory at Horseferry Road. Members of the Rose family continued as working partners until the reconstitution of the company in 1901.

The creation of any new partnership resulted in a new 'concern', and accounts continued to be kept in respect of the old partnership until outstanding credits and debts had been accounted for. All payments were recorded in the 'partnership books' (ref: -/11/-). In particular, after the restructuring of 1857 had created a new firm, separate accounts relating to the 'old firm' continued to be kept for several years (ref: -/12/- to -/14/-).

In 1823, in order to supply the increased demand for pianos, the partners leased factory premises in Horseferry Road, Westminster, from the Grosvenor Estate (ref: -/9/25-28). The factory was destroyed by fire on 12 August 1856 and with it much of the piano stock (ref: -/85/1-8). Production continued elsewhere until the factory was rebuilt the following year to designs laid out by Frederick Rose. In 1866 the company ceased production of 'square' pianos in order to concentrate on making the more popular 'uprights' (first produced in 1822).

The following extract, taken from Professor Cyril Ehrlich's book, The Piano: A History (Oxford, 2nd edition, 1990), provides a picture of the firm's place, at the height of its powers, in the market of the mid 1800s.

'Various London directories list about two hundred 'makers', many still in the traditional centre around Soho Square, but there were already signs of a shift northwest ... The Soho piano makers were one of the few trades in Central London which needed considerable space, and there was a general tendency to move out where rents were lower, perhaps leaving a showroom at the old address. Some of the two hundred were mere shopkeepers 'stencilling' other men's instruments, and others were described by a contemporary observer as 'workmen in some single branch only of the trade'…

'A pattern of manufacture can be discerned in which the piano maker is already able to buy partly processed materials and components. The system was as yet rudimentary; even the humblest manufacturer still needed to be master of, or to employ men with, a wide range of skills. It is notable that complete actions were not yet offered for sale. [In 1855] the leading English 'supplies' firm of T & H Brooks, hitherto offering rails, keys and frets, took this momentous step...

'By far the greatest firm was Broadwood's, admired in 1843 for associations with great composers, its large labour force embodying high skills, 'not likely to be supplanted by any automatic machinery', and its conservative ways personified in a venerable octogenarian foreman who had been with the firm for sixty years. With an enthusiasm typical of the period, G Dodd marvelled at actions which contained '3800 separate pieces of ivory, woods, metals, cloth, felt, leather and vellum, all fashioned and adjusted by hand.'

'This was indeed a big enterprise by the standards of contemporary London industries. The 1851 census indicated … [in London] only twelve factories were recorded as employing more than three hundred, and Broadwood's was one of these. Its workforce of between three and four hundred performed a bewildering range of operations that were strictly demarcated. A grand piano [made for the Great Exhibition of 1851], remarked EF Rimbault, 'passes under the hands of upwards of forty different workmen' [including]…:

1. The Key maker prepared a complete keyboard from one piece of lime tree wood, fixed ivory and ebony, bored holes, and cut into separate keys.
2-5. The hammer maker, check-maker, damper maker, and damper-lifter-maker constructed their appropriate parts of the action.
6-7. The notch-maker covered the ends of the hammer shanks with doeskin and leather cloth. The hammer-leatherer covered each hammer-head with leather and felt, shaping them individually.
8. The beam maker cut the rail extending across the action and covered it with brass.
9-15. The following 'music smiths' … construct parts of the metallic bracing for what was still fundamentally a wooden frame:

(a) Brass-stud maker, brass-bridge maker, and wrest-pin maker.
(b) Metallic-brace maker, plate maker, steel-arch maker, and transverse-bar maker,

16. Spun string maker.
17-21. The instrument's body was constructed by the sawyer, bent-side maker, case maker, bracer, and bottom maker.
22-23. The sounding-board maker and belly man, both highly skilled craftsmen.
24. The marker-off marked out the scale, finished the beech bridge and fixed its pins, inserted the upward bearing bridge and bored it for the tuning pins, fixing the metallic bracing.
25. The stringer.
26. The finisher assembled and fixed the action, bringing the whole mechanism into playing order.
27-28. The rougher-up gave the instrument its first tuning, and was followed by the tuner.
29-30. The regulator of action and regulator of tones.

'Twelve additional operations were performed by individual craftsmen during the course of the instrument's construction. These were the top maker, plinther, fronter, canvas-frame maker, lyre maker, leg-block maker, leg maker, turner, carver, gilder, scraper and polisher.

'Annual production at Broadwood's during the 1850s was about 2500 instruments. Chickering, the leading American manufacturer [at the time], was making about 1000 … a year. In France, Pleyel … was of similar size and output; Erard rather smaller. In England, Collard occupied 2nd place with some 1500 … a year, followed by perhaps 8 firms whose annual output probably ranged between 300 and 500.

'Out of an approximate total of 200 English firms that leaves some 190 small men who probably each made about thirty instruments during the busy season, when rapid sales enabled them to survive with little capital. Our phraseology is deliberately tentative for reasons … which are particularly relevant for the 1850s, half a century before the first census of production. Although the names, dates and addresses of most makers are known, quantitative information about their activities, poor even for the big firms, is non-existent for the small. Nevertheless, informed guesswork gives an estimate of total English production in 1851 as between 15,000 and 20,000 instruments.'

During the 1870s, the company fought off competition from rival piano makers including Erard, Bechstein, Steinway and Bluthner, and took smaller British manufacturers to court for fraudulently selling pianos under the Broadwood name. From the very start however, the firm could count many eminent musicians, composers, politicians, cultural figures and other personalities from across the continent, and indeed the world, amongst its clientele.

In 1878, the artist Laurence Alma Tadema designed and decorated one of the first of a series of 'artistic' Broadwood pianos. Over the next thirty years other eminent artists including Edward Burne-Jones, William Morris, CR Ashbee, The Guild of Handicrafts, Edwin Lutyens, Kate Faulkner and Hugh Baillie Scott, were also commissioned to decorate or design Broadwood pianos. Although beautiful and a great talking point at evening parties at Great Pulteney Street, not many sold. However, one Broadwood 'artistic' grand, decorated by Kate Faulkner, was purchased by the Emir of Kabul in c.1882; and two others were bought by Arthur Conan Doyle and Sir Henry Irving. For illustrations of some of these pianos see photographs (ref: -/82/- & -/83/-) and the two editions of the Album of Artistic Pianos, Broadwood advertising material, 1895 and 1904 (ref: -/78/2-3).

With Henry Fowler's sudden indisposition in 1888 and Walter Stewart's retirement in 1889, the company entered into a period of crisis so great that, in 1893, it appeared as though the firm would be wound up. In January 1893, Henry Fowler's youngest daughter, Lucy, wrote to her sister Bertha about the firm's troubles and also about her brother, Henry John, who was being groomed to take over the company: 'What they want is a man of business … He [Henry John] will certainly never be one himself, any more (or less) than our Father of whom Uncle Tom told me our grandfather said: 'He is an excellent piano-maker but a shocking man of business.'' (Wainwright, p.228).

Whilst he was head, Henry Fowler would not agree to the firm paying for advertising, believing that it was unnecessary and even vulgar (Wainwright, p.218). The first advertising brochure, Artistic Pianos, was produced in 1895, after he had died (ref: 2185/JB/78/2).

After Henry Fowler's death in 1893, his daughter Bertha, who had taken an increasing interest in the company's management, introduced her nephew William Cary Dobbs into the firm as her candidate for its head. He was not popular, either with his rival, George Rose, or within the firm. During the next decade various attempts were made to revive the company's fortunes, none of which succeeded. Broadwood family members with an interest in the firm became increasingly factionalised. Finally, at the suggestion of Cuthbert Heath, Henry John's brother-in-law and an eminent City financier, the firm was wound up in 1901 and replaced by a limited company (memorandum and articles of association, ref: -/2/-). The first chairman to be appointed was William H Leslie (Board minutes, ref: -/4/-).

After the creation of the limited company in 1901, members of the family continued to be involved in the running of the firm, as directors and as employees, and Henry Fowler's grandson, Capt Evelyn Broadwood, chairman from 1931, was actively engaged in the firm until his death in 1975 (correspondence, 1903-1930, ref: -/6/7/-).

When the lease on the Horseferry Road premises expired in 1902, all production moved to the Old Ford Works, Stour Road, Hackney. The firm began to diversify and produced automated 'player pianos' or pianolas from 1902. One of these was sent south with Captain Scott in 1910 as part of his Antarctic expedition. Lt. Rennick, a member of the expedition team, wrote that 'the machine has been a godsend to us … and we are fairly working it to death'. Another Broadwood player piano was sent with the Shackleton expedition of 1912-1913. The company also produced and sold gramophones for a brief period during the 1920s.

In 1903, the firm moved the office and showrooms from Great Pulteney Street to the premises of the former Limmer's Hotel in Conduit Street. Lucy and Henry John sorted through the firm's papers at this time and removed those felt to be of a private nature. The new showroom opened on 2 May 1904 with an exhibition of several 'artistic' pianos, recalled from their owners for the occasion. A commemorative brochure was produced to accompany the display (ref: -/78/3).

After the First World War, during which much of the firm's production was given over to aircraft manufacture (photographs, ref: -/72/-), the company once again began to lose money. It also encountered serious staff difficulties and in 1920, the workforce went on strike for the first time for a raise in salary. This situation continued throughout the next decade culminating in another major reorganisation of the board in 1931.

Under the new organisation, John Broadwood & Sons Ltd licensed Charles H Challen & Son Ltd, piano manufacturers, of Hendon, to be the sole manufacturer of the Broadwood piano for the next 15 years at the end of which period, the latter had the option to purchase the goodwill of the business. John Broadwood & Sons Ltd were to retain the right to a retail establishment for the sale or hire-purchase of instruments to private purchasers and to continue to tune and hire out pianos under the Broadwood name. The firm moved to new retail premises in Hanover Street in 1932. Many of the workmen from Old Ford moved to Challens' works at Hendon. In 1938, Challens withdrew from the agreement and Broadwoods attempted to resume their own production (ref: 2185/JB/2/6). They rented a factory at Brunel Road, Acton, which opened in January 1939.

In 1941, under the provisions of the Concentration of Industry Act of the same year, Broadwoods joined in a consortium with piano manufacturers, George Rogers, Marshall & Rose and Whelpdale, Maxwell & Codd (ref: -/68/2). For the duration of the war, the pianos of all four companies were produced at the Welmar Factory, Clapham Park Road, Clapham. In addition under the same Act, the Tuning Department, now the financial mainstay of the company, took over the concession of C Bechstein Co Ltd and S & P Erard Ltd, piano tuners (ref: -/7/40).

The Brunel Road factory was sub-let in 1941 after Broadwoods moved out to Clapham. It was heavily damaged by bombs in the same year and not operational for much of the war. Although the firm successfully resumed operation in 1946, the market for pianos had collapsed and the company again ran into financial difficulties. The market did not recover until the mid-1960s. In 1968, the company leased another site in Brunel Road, Acton.

In October 1972 the firm rationalised once more. The firm's showrooms, retail and wholesale order departments moved to 12 Edgware Road, London, while the Head office, accounts, tuning and repair departments remained at 1-5 Brunel Road, Acton. In 1978, the Bentley Piano Co, of Woodchester, Gloucs, was licensed to produce pianos under the Broadwood name.

In 1989, 40% of the production area at Woodchester was destroyed by fire. A new factory building was opened in 1991, and work continued. In 2001, the Bentley Piano Co moved back to Woodchester Mills to form part of the British Piano Manufacturing Company Ltd along with Broadwood, Knight, Welmar and Woodchester pianos.

On 7th April 2003, the British Piano Manufacturing Co Ltd went into voluntary liquidation taking with it Bentley pianos. Inter Music of Poole, Dorset, have bought the Bentley piano name. John Broadwood & Sons Ltd still exists as a registered company although it is not currently engaged in the production of pianos.

For further information about the latter years of John Broadwood & Sons Ltd, see 'The evolution of the Broadwood grand piano, 1785-1998', by Alastair Laurence (University of York, Department of Music, DPhil, Sep 1998) (ref: -/83/51).

Significant figures in the Company's history

James Shudi Broadwood (1772-1851).

Eldest son of John Broadwood, entered the firm in 1785, made partner in 1795. Bought Lyne, Capel, in 1799 and by purchasing surrounding properties established a large estate. With his son, Henry Fowler, he co-wrote 'Some notes made by JS Broadwood, 1838, with observations and elucidations by HF Broadwood', 1862 [concerning the history and manufacture of the harpsichord and pianoforte] (WS Johnson & Co, London, 1862). The British Library holds a copy of this pamphlet.

Thomas Broadwood (1786-1861).

Second surviving son of John Broadwood, became business manager of the company and made partner in 1808. Bought Juniper Hall, Mickleham, in 1815, and Holmbush, Crawley, Sussex, in 1825. Arranged for gift of a Broadwood grand piano to Beethoven.

Henry Fowler Broadwood (1811-1893).

Second eldest surviving son of James Shudi Broadwood. Taken into partnership in 1836; effectively became the head of the company on his father's death in 1851. In 1848, he provided Chopin with three Broadwood grands for his British tour. Henry inherited Lyne, Capel, from his elder half-brother, the Rev John Broadwood, in 1864, and rebuilt and enlarged it during 1865-1866. He also had a town house in London at 46 Bryanston Square, London until 1866, then 8 St George's Street, Mayfair; and rented The Pavilion, an estate in Melrose, Scotland.

Henry John Tschudi Broadwood (1856-1911).

Entered the company in 1879. In 1886, married Ada, daughter of Admiral Sir Leopold Heath.

AJ (Alfred James) Hipkins, FSA.

Began work for Broadwoods in 1840 and achieved the status of senior workman in 1849. Became an authority on the history of the piano and an expert on musical pitch. Also a proponent of 'authentic' performance of early music using period instruments. He was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1886.

The Rose family: Daniel, George Thomas, Frederick and George Daniel

According to Wainwright, the Rose family worked for Broadwoods for many years. Daniel Giles Rose was a company clerk and witness to John Broadwood's will in 1811. His sons, George Thomas and Frederick were promoted 'senior workmen' in 1840 and 1847 respectively. By the 1850s, George ran the company's office in Great Pulteney Street, whilst Frederick was responsible for piano manufacture at Horseferry Road, under Henry Fowler Broadwood. Frederick's son, George Daniel, joined the company in the 1880s, rising to become factory manager and a company director. Another of Frederick's sons, Algernon, was dismissed from the company's employ in 1903.

Capt Evelyn Henry Tschudi Broadwood (1889-1975).

Son of James Henry Tschudi Broadwood, Henry Fowler's eldest son. Joined company after active service in First World War. Elected a director in 1918. Became Chairman in 1931 and remained so until his death in 1975. He was succeeded by his nephew-in-law, Adam Johnstone. He inherited Lyne estate from his father in 1903. The estate was sold following his death.

Leopold Alfred Tschudi Broadwood (1890-1980).

Second son of Henry John. Joined the company in 1918 and worked from the general office in Conduit Street. Resigned from the company's employ in 1928, although he remained a member of the Board.
ArrangementSince the first deposit of the records in 1977, a number of cataloguing initiatives have been undertaken. However, owing to the necessarily piecemeal nature of this work, confusion arose over numbering schemes and the identification of lengthy series of factory records. In 2001, the entire collection was stock-checked and a new cataloguing scheme applied.

As far as possible, efforts have been made to ensure that the records have been arranged in order to reflect the changes in overall administration (partnership and limited company) and the four aspects of the firm's work: piano manufacture, sale and hire, tuning and repair. Although the establishment of the limited company in 1901 created a new legal entity, most series of working records were continuous across the period. Therefore, the part of the archive relating to the manufacture, maintenance and sale of pianos has not been divided between partnership and company records.

The final arrangement of the archive, after a lengthy cataloguing process, involved re-ordering and renumbering some series. However, the numbering allotted to two major series - the sales ledgers (-/29/-) and porters day books (-/42/-) - was retained, since these had been the most frequently consulted and cited records. In order to place these series in a logical position in the listing scheme, it was necessary to omit the intervening sub-series numbers: -/30/- to -/41/- inclusive.
Related RecordsFor John Broadwood & Sons Ltd partnership papers, 1883-1889; claims against bankrupts and debtors and other legal claims, 1885-1921; piano design patents, 1911-1914; staff records, 1899-1920; letting, valuation, maintenance of premises, 1871-1920; and execution of Henry Fowler Broadwood's will, 1890-1906, see 2185/SP/-.

For correspondence engaged in and collected by Bertha M Broadwood and associated papers relating to the ownership and policy of the firm from c.1869 to 1931, see 2185/BMB/10/-. In particular, -/10/30-38 comprises correspondence and papers, 1892-1897, relating to Walter Stewart Broadwood's resignation from the partnership in 1889 and a proposal that he should accept a reduction in his claim for capital due to the firm's threatened insolvency after Henry F Broadwood's death.

For Bertha's involvement with the firm on a day-to-day basis, see her pocket diaries, 1870-1934, 2185/BMB/5/13-15 and 6975/-; for Lucy's diaries, 1883-1929, see 6782/-.

For correspondence and further notes by AJ Hipkins on the history of the company and certain historic instruments including the personal notebooks referred to in Wainwright's footnotes, (1745)-1911, see 2185/LEB/7/12-23, 31-38.

For copies of newscuttings and articles relating to John Broadwood and Sons, piano manufacturers, 1881-1911, see Z362/-.

Account books of the firm, 1769-1813, are held by the Department of Western Manuscripts, Bodleian Library, University of Oxford. For photocopies see 8190.

A group portrait of the Shudi Family, executed in oil on canvas by Marcus Tuscher, c.1742, is now held at the National Portrait Gallery, London. For correspondence regarding the possible provenance of the portrait, 1891-1892, see 2185/LEB/7/4-11.

For a mezzotint portrait of John Broadwood, engraved by William Say, after John Harrison Jr, 1812, see 2185/JB/86/1. Another copy is held by the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Four volumes of AJ Hipkins' collected correspondence, 1795-1927, were presented to the British Library by his daughter, Miss Edith Hipkins. The correspondence relates mainly to his researches on ancient musical instruments and musical pitch. The collection also includes letters written to members of his family (British Library MSS, ref: 41636-41639).
Access restrictionsThere are no access restrictions.
BibliographyDavid Wainwright, Broadwood by Appointment (London, 1982) (referred to hereafter as 'Wainwright'). This book provides a thorough account of the firm's history and considerable information about those members of the family involved in its creation and administration, together with a comprehensive bibliography.

David Wainwright, The Pianomakers (London, 1975);
Professor Cyril Ehrlich, The Piano: a History, (Oxford, 1976, 2nd ed. 1990);
Robert and Margaret Palmieri, eds, Encyclopaedia of the Piano, (Garland, New York & London, 1996)

The following reference material is held by the British Library:

List of Pianofortes, and of various samples and models, intended to illustrate the principles of their manufacture exhibited by J. Broadwood and Sons. ... With an historical introduction, etc, published by John Broadwood & Sons for the International Exhibition of 1862 (London, 1862);
Catalogue of Books in the Library of John Broadwood & Sons' Manufactory, John Broadwood & Sons, (Witherby & Co, London, 1874);
Album of artistic pianofortes [illustrated], John Broadwood & Sons, (London, 1895);
Information concerning pianofortes of use and of interest: a vade mecum for all who possess, or contemplate purchasing, either a grand or an upright instrument, John Broadwood & Sons, (London, [1895]);
Broadwood Concerts [Programmes, 6 Nov. 1902-28 March 1912, with historical notes by Robin H. Legge], John Broadwood & Sons, (London, [1902-1912]);
The Broadwood Collection of Antique Instruments; forerunners of the modern pianoforte, on view at the Broadwood Galleries, John Broadwood & Sons, (London, [1910?])
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